TRAINING STIFFNESS PERCEPTION: KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS AND MODALITY EFFECTS
Stiffness perception demands integration of both the haptic and the visual modalities. Recent studies argued for a facilitatory effect of multisensory training on unisensory learning, thus suggesting that visual-haptic training will enhance haptic-only performance. An additional training manipulation, which is also argued as having an enhancing effect, is Knowledge of Results (KR). In this study we examined whether practice alone improves stiffness perception and how the addition of KR and/or visual information during training affects learning in unisensory haptic discrimination. The results showed that practice induced gradual improvement in unimodal stiffness discrimination ability. Affordance of visual information during training did not induce better uni-sesnsory learning, but only transiently enhanced performance during the training itself. We didnâ€™t find evidence that training with KR enhances accuracy. However, we found temporary effects of KR and visual-haptic trainings on decision times: while visual-haptic training resulted in slower decisions, KR training induced faster decisions.