James McKeen Cattell and the method of constant stimuli in the psychophysics of movement
In 1892, Cattell & Fullerton published a paper on â€œThe Psychophysics of Movementâ€ in which they summarised their findings from the application of Fechnerâ€™s methods to the study of the extent, force, and time of arm movements made without the aid of vision. Using a form of Munsterbergâ€™s apparatus (Titchener, 1905) they found the method of right and wrong cases to be â€˜the most accurate of the methodsâ€™ and the difference associated with 75% correct judgement to be the â€˜most convenient measure of discriminationâ€™. By 1990s, however a major work on examining the role of proprioception in joint stability listed only the methods of adjustment (Joint Position Sense) and limits (Kinesthesia) as being ways of measuring movement sensitivity. Recent technical developments have enabled researchers to employ the Cattell & Fullerton method to obtain psychophysical measures of proprioception derived from the comparison of active movements made to physical stops.