SPATIAL PERCEPTION DURING CONROL WITH ANOTHER:
The perceived vanishing point of a moving stimulus is displaced beyond the actual vanishing point. This forward displacement (FD) decreases with implied friction (i.e., the stimulus appears to move across a surface). The effect reverses when participants control stimulus movements (via right- and left-key presses) versus observe them. This reversal is consistent with economy-of-action (EOA) effects in which variables such as perceived pitch are influenced by the energy-demands implied by a stimulus (e.g., a steeper hill). The present talk presents experiments that reveal EOA effects when two participants control stimulus movements together, each having access to one of two control buttons. Specifically, FD increases across implied friction, regardless who controls the stimulus when it vanishes. Since participants are basically observers as the other participant controls the stimulus, the increase of FD during such observation indicates participants perceive the other-controlled stimulus movements in terms implied effort (i.e., EOA).