ARE STROOP FACILITATION AND INTERFERENCE EFFECTS ENHANCED BY AN ACCOMPANYING AUDITORY WORD?
Cross-modal enhancement was investigated using Stroop color words and spoken words. Stroop color words consisted of printed color words in semantically congruent or incongruent colors. The visual stimuli had two dimensions (color and word), and the auditory stimuli had one dimension. The combination of two dimensions of visual color words and auditory words produced five possible conditions: corresponding to all dimensions; corresponding to two dimensions and non-corresponding to one dimension, including three subconditions according to the combination of dimensions; and non-corresponding to all dimensions. These combinations varied randomly from one trial to the next. Stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between visual and auditory stimuli was blocked within participants across five blocks. The block order was counterbalanced across the participants. Consequently, the Stroop facilitation effect was enhanced by the accompanying congruent auditory words, especially in auditory-word-first SOA, in which the auditory word was presented before the visual color word.